BILLíS MARINE RADIO AND OBSERVATION TOPICS

 Last updated September 28, 2017

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 This page requires layout revision but the information is current in the Fall of 2016.  I expect to add information on the Canadian Coast Guard Radio system and as well other VTS zones in the Maritimes over the winter.

 
MARINE RADIO LISTENING in the Halifax coastal area.

Coastal and harbour shipping almost entirely uses the VHF Marine Band for communications between ships and as well with shore facilities.   This band consists internationally of 57 channels numbered 1 to 28 and 60 to 88, but not all of these are used in Canadian waters.  I intend to at some point describe this band in detail but for the present, check my list of commonly-used channels in the Halifax area.

Communications on board ships in order to conduct their own operations may be on the lesser-known Marine UHF Band which is charted below.

There may be some residual use of the old MF 2 MHz band using SSB.  This who are familiar with my own radio history will know of my extensive background of listening on that band in the 1960's and 70's.   You will still hear Halifax Coast Guard Radio broadcasting on 2749 kHz, and it continues to monitor 2182 kHz, the 2 MHz international calling and emergency frequency.  I myself do not at all listen on this band any longer, and such listening on bands below VHF is not generally considered to be part of scanning.  At present I am not in any way further discussing this band on my site but may do so in the future.

 VHF Channels in frequent use in the harbour and in the adjoining area.

Note that many scanners do allow you to simply press one button and automatically scan the complete Marine Band, but most scanning enthusiasts prefer to input the specific channels wanted.

 

Used Anywhere Channel 16   156.8 MHz Emergency and General Calling (not used much in the harbour)
     
Primarily Used in the Harbour Area Channel 6       156.3 MHz Primary intership
Channel 7A    156.35 MHz Tugboat working
Channel 8       156.4 MHz Naval ship movements, visiting ships and exercises
Channel 10     156.5 MHz QHM - Queen's Harbour Master (Naval ship movements)
Channel 12     156.6 MHz Halifax Traffic Vessel Traffic Management (inner harbour) [Also used by Fundy Traffic in Saint John area, and by Northumberland Traffic
Channel 13     156.65 MHz Internationally recognized Bridge to Bridge
Channel 14     156.7 MHz Halifax Traffic Vessel Traffic Management  (harbour approaches) [Also used by Strait of Canso Vessel Traffic Management, and by Fundy Traffic in the outer Bay of Fundy area]
Channel 19     156.95 MHz Cdn Coast Guard operations
Channel 23     161.75 MHz Halifax Pilots dispatch
Channel 65A  156.275 MHz Halifax Port Authority (unconfirmed if currently in use)
Channel 66A  156.325 MHz Coast Guard Inshore Rescue (seasonal)
Channel 68     156.425 MHz Recreational vessels ("Pleasurecraft")
Channel 80A  157.025 MHz Fleet Diving Unit (unconfirmed if currently in use)
     

Mostly Off-Shore

Channel  4A   156.2 MHz  Authorized for use by Commercial Fisheries along the coast
Channel 61A  156.075 MHz
Channel 62A  156.125 MHz
Channel 67     156.375 MHz
Channel 73     156.675 MHz
     
Halifax Radio and other Coast Guard Radio Stations Channel 21B  161.65 MHz Coast Guard Continuous Marine Broadcasts (including the local Halifax transmitter)
Channel 24     161.8/157.2 MHz Coast Guard Radio Duplex Working Channels  (CG Station transmits on high frequency; Ship transmits on low frequency)  [It remains possible to connect ship radios to the land telephone system using these channels, but it is becoming less and less common]
Channel 26     161.9/157.3 MHz
Channel 27    161.95/157.35 MHz
Channel 70    156.525 MHz Coast Guard Radio Simplex Working Channel
Channel 83B  161.775 MHz Coast Guard Continuous Marine Broadcasts (including the transmitters at Ecum Secum and Blomidon, might be heard from Halifax area)
     
Fundy Traffic Channel 71   156.575 MHz Vessel Traffic Management for the Upper Bay of Fundy area, with a transceiver at Blomidon (might be heard from Halifax area)
     
Canso Canal Channel 11  156.55 MHz Canal liaison channel.  Not likely to be heard in the Halifax area.


* In an upcoming revision and addition I will explain what the A or B following some channel numbers means.  It has no bearing on the frequency you enter.

 

 

CANADIAN UHF MARINE BAND

The following frequencies are authorized for use onboard ships in Canadian waters for communications within the ship.  Power is restricted to 5 watts and is Simplex.    Note that while these are the authorized frequencies, there are many different ships of various nationalities and levels of adherence to rules and therefore you may hear other 400 MHz UHF frequencies in use, including FRS/GMRS.   You may also hear other frequency bands in use.  Note that the Canadian authorized frequencies clash with the American GMRS band usage, i.e. some of these frequencies are part of GMRS in the USA.

 

1 457.525 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
2 457.55 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
3 457.575 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
4 457.6 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
5 467.525 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
6 467.55 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
7 467.575 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
8 467.75 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
9 467.775 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
10 467.8 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP
11 467.825 COMMUNICATIONS ON BOARD SHIP

 

 

Halifax Vessel Traffic Management System   ("Halifax Traffic")

Many busy marine areas around the world are more regulated than the open ocean areas.  These areas might be harbours or narrow bodies of water where it is crucial to minimize the chance of collisions.    In our region there are Vessel Traffic Management Systems (commonly abbreviated to VTS) in the following areas:

Fundy Traffic, centering on Saint John but covering the entire Bay of Fundy

Northumberland Traffic, covering the Strait, as well as Charlottetown and including the Confederation Bridge

Strait of Canso Traffic, covering the eastern and western approaches to the strait, and the strait itself

Halifax Traffic which is described in more detail here.

Canadian VTS operations are co-located with Coast Guard Radio Stations, and in today's world might be situated considerable distance from the areas being managed.   VTS is not control in the sense that an Air Traffic Control centre or tower gives definitive bearings or speed commands.   It is more of an advisory system, with decision power remaining in the master's hands.   

The Halifax Traffic system is based on three surveillance radar stations at Shannon Hill (for Bedford Basin and the area between the bridges)Georges Island (for the main inner harbour area) and Chebucto Head (for the outer harbour beyond Maugher's Beach, and the harbour approaches).    All large ships participate in the system, whereas smaller vessels including many recreational craft, fishing vessels and work boats do not, but may if they wish).   Participating vessels communicate on VHF with the operator at Halifax Traffic.   The outer area is on Channel 14, and the inner area is on Channel 12.    Due to the relatively busy conditions in the inner harbour, Channel 12 is the more active of the two, and is the primary channel to have in your scanner to assist with your observations.   The system also consists of laid-out pathways on the water that ships should follow.   This includes various traffic lanes in the approaches to the harbour out in open water.   These lanes are intended both for avoidance of shoals and other natural dangers, but also to ensure separation of vessels from each other.

When a foreign ship is approaching Halifax it will already have sent word through its local agent that it will be arriving and approximately when.   The Port Authority ship movements calendar will show you what is upcoming.    As the arriving ship nears the Halifax harbour outer approaches it normal calls Halifax Pilots on Channel 23.   Here in Halifax this channel is configured in an unusual manner, as the ship's signal is repeated or in effect amplified so that you as a scanner listener will get the benefit of the professional antenna and receiver and hear the ship even though it may be well out to sea.   The pilot dispatcher, who is working for the Atlantic Pilotage Authority, will coordinate the correct ETA for the pilot boarding location situated just off Chebucto Head.    Details of speed and side of the ship to be used are left to the next stage.   The incoming ship will already have the details of the VTS lanes, as they are described in Radio Aids to Marine Navigation (RAMN) and other publications and depicted on the charts that the ship is required to carry.

The pilot dispatcher will have arranged for the pilot to be at the pilot boarding station at the proper time.   The pilot is taken to that location on the pilot boat.   There are two pilot boats in Halifax.   The primary one is named Chebucto Pilot and is based along the waterfront.   The pilot boat on air is normally simply referred to as "Pilot Boat" so as to keep it simple for the foreign personnel.   There is a backup boat also stationed in Halifax, though it is is possible that which one it is at any time can vary due to rotations around the region.

As the incoming ship enters the designated lane out at the approaches it will contact Halifax Traffic on Channel 14.  Occasionally you will hear them call on Channel 16, if they have misunderstood what is the correct initial contact channel.   At that time the Halifax Traffic operator and the ships officers will reaffirm the ETA to the pilot boarding station, and details will be passed re speed and the side of the ship on which the boarding ladder will be rigged, which is based on wind and swell direction.

Once the pilot is boarded they take over practical management of the ship, but the master remains legally in control.    Canadian ships generally do not require a pilot and the master is on her or his own. 

The ship or rather the personnel on it remain on the VTS channel but will have another radio still on Channel 16 and perhaps even more on other channels.    There are a number of calling-in points at which the ship must report it is passing by.   Once passing our of the approaches and into the outer harbour itself, the ship will be told to change to Channel 12.    Many smaller vessels such as the ferries operate only in the inner harbour and therefore are always on Channel 12.    

Here is an official diagram from RAMN showing the Halifax system:

In the inner harbour vessels may also be on other channels.  The harbour tugs usually operate on Channel 7 and you will hear them talking amongst themselves or with the pilot of the ship they are assisting on this channel.   

Note that even our own naval ships adhere to the VTS system and operate on Channels 12 and 14, but they also use Channel 10 in the dockyard area for movements such as docking and moving from one berth to another.   In these areas the Queen's Harbour Master (QHM) has authority over naval vessels and therefore you will commonly hear traffic between naval ships (and naval auxiliary ships) and QHM.